Diabetes is hard to manage. You can get a comprehensive understanding of the disease here and get the information about the latest treatments and get professional advices. read more

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is a brand-new therapy based on traditional Chinese herbal medicines dating back thousands of years ago. It combines the essences of herbal medicines read more

Hormonal therapy is commonly used to treat Kidney Disease in clinic. It refers to use one or more than one hormone medicines to suppress the over-reactive immune reaction read more

Patients are suggested to treat kidney disease first before they get pregnant read more

If you are diagnosed with Kidney Disease, you should talk to your doctor about starting an exercise read more

Foods and Drinks play an important role in Kidney Disease patients read more

Kidney Disease News and Events read more

In every week, a famous experienced renal medicine specialist will be invited to help diagnose and evaluate inpatient's disease condition, offering detailed therapeutic schedule. read more

Home > Treatments > Blood Purification

Blood Purification

  • Hemodialysis
  • Hemofiltration
  • Hemoperfusion
  • Immune Adsorption
  • Plasma Exchange
  • CRRT
contact us

Hemodialysis

What is hemodialysis?

Hemodialysis is a machine that filters wastes, salts and excessive fluid from your blood when your kidneys are not functioned to this work. Hemodialysis mainly deals with the micro molecule toxins in the blood, including BUN, creatinine, sugar, electrolyte and water.

hemodialysis

What are the functions of hemodialysis?

Hemodialysis is g process that uses man-made membrane to play the following roles:

● Remove small sized wastes in the blood, such as urea, creatinine, BUN etc.

● Filter out the excessive water from the body.

● Keep the balance of electrolytes in the blood.

What are the side effects of hemodialysis?

Hemodialysis is used to prolong life for many people, but life expectancy for people who need hemodialysis it still much less than that for the general population, if the patient just takes this therapy only. You may experience the following side effects or complications after or during the hemodialysis.

- muscle cramps

- itching

- sleep problems

- low or high blood pressure

- fluid overload

- bone disease

- anemia

- Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart

- Infection

- High potassium levels

- Depression

- Amyloidosis

What are the features of hemodialysis?

- Hemodialysis only removes the micromolecule wastes in the blood.

- It is usually used in the following conditions: acute kidney failure, chronic kidney failure, acute poisoning, serious imbalance of water, electrolyte, uric-acid, severe acute pancreatitis, hepatic coma, psoriasis, hyperbilirubinemia.

What types of hemodialysis are there?

There are mainly 4 types of hemodialysis, including in-center hemodialysis, homo hemodialysis, daily hemodialysis, nocturnal hemodialysis.

In-center dialysis means that you need to go to dialysis center in hospital, which is usually done 3 days a week and 3 to 5 hours a day.

Home dialysis is done at home on the condition that you are trained well. It is usually done 3 days a week or every other day.

Daily home dialysis is similar with home dialysis, but it usually done 5 to 7 days a week at home and takes about 3 hours a day.

Nocturnal hemodialysis is done 3 to 7 nights a week at home and each session is done over night.

hemodialysis

What are the hemodialysis facts?

- Hemodialysis machines are very expensive; the American Association of Kidney Patients report dialysis costs nearly $30,000 a year.

- Installing a machine at home can cost even more with nearly $2,000 in piping, tubing and installation costs.

- In a recent survey, more than 90% of nephrologists said they would choose a home therapy for themselves if faced with dialysis, with home hemodialysis as the preferred option.

Dos and donts of hemodialysis

- Increase protein intake decrease potassium, phosphate intake and limit fluids.

- Avoid morphine codeine; reduce doses of SSRIs and avoid vitamin A supplements.

- Monitor potassium levels

- Control BP and lipid levels

- Keep immunizations up to date, particularly in patients who may be candidates for transplantation

- Assess patient for anxiety

- Testing for renal osteodystrophy and follow-up if results abnormal.

- Smoking and alcohol cessation

- Maintenance of healthy weight

- Regular excise

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here

Hemofiltration

What is hemofiltration?

Hemofiltration is a therapy similar to hemodialysis, which is use to replace the function of kidneys in the case of kidney failure. Compared with hemodialysis, hemofiltration is always used in intensive care settings in case of acute renal failure.

hemofiltration

What are the functions of hemofiltration?

- Remove the small and middle sized wastes in the blood, such as chemicals, bilirubin and excessive vitamins.

- Eliminate a few of large sized toxins in the blood, such as cytokines and inflammatory mediators.

- Control the inflammations.

What are the side effects of hemofiltration?

- muscle cramps

- itching

- sleep problems

- low or high blood pressure

- fluid overload

- bone disease

- anemia

- Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart

- Infection

- High potassium levels

- Depression

- Amyloidosis

hemofiltration

What are the features of hemofiltration?

- hemofiltration deals with both micromolecule and mid-molecule toxins in the blood.

- It removes a few of large-molecule waste in the blood.

- Hemofiltration is sometimes used together with hemodialysis.

Dos and donts of hemofiltration

- Increase protein intake decrease potassium, phosphate intake and limit fluids.

- Avoid morphine codeine; reduce doses of SSRIs and avoid vitamin A supplements.

- Monitor potassium levels

- Control BP and lipid levels

- Keep immunizations up to date, particularly in patients who may be candidates for transplantation

- Assess patient for anxiety

- Testing for renal osteodystrophy and follow-up if results abnormal.

- Smoking and alcohol cessation

- Maintenance of healthy weight

- Regular excise

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here

Hemoperfusion

What is Hemoperfusion?

Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in order to remove toxic substances from the blood. It deals with all the small and middle sized toxins, as well as a few large sized wastes in the blood.

Hemoperfusion

What are the functions of Hemoperfusion?

• Remove nephrotoxic drugs or poisons from the blood in emergency situations (A nephrotoxic substance is one that is harmful to the kidneys.)

• Provide supportive treatment before and after transplantation for patients in

• Eliminate waste products from the blood in patients with kidney disease

• It is more effective, compared with other treatment, in eliminate some specific wastes in the blood, especially those bind to proteins in the body. This substance rarely is dissolved in water.

What are the side effects of Hemoperfusion?

The side effects of hemoperfusion are similar with those of hemodialysis, including:

- infection

- blood clotting

- destruction of blood platelets

- blood pressure drop

- equipment failure

What are the features of Hemoperfusion?

- Hemoperfusion plays a significant role when it comes to removing toxic drugs or poisons from the blood in emergency situations.

- It is easy handling. A hemoperfusion system can be used with or without a hemodialysis machine.

- Hemoperfusion is able to clear toxins from a larger volume of blood than hemodialysis or other filtration methods; it can process over 300 mL of blood per minute.

- It has the character of high efficiency. Outstanding adsorption capacity is achieved using 300g of hemoperfusion-grade activated charcoal.

Hemoperfusion

What are the Hemoperfusion facts?

- hemoperfusion may remove as much as 80% of the drug found in the blood plasma.

Dos and don'ts of Hemoperfusion

- The hemoperfusion system is prepared by sterilizing the cartridge containing the sorbent and rinsing it with heparinized saline solution.

- Before the tubing is connected to the catheters in patient's arm, pressure tests should be performed.

- When talking about the preparation, your doctor may suggest you not cleanse your skin on the inside of the arm with and antiseptic solution.

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here

Immune Adsorption

What is immune adsorption?

Immune adsorption is a therapy which uses adsorbing materials to alternatively or specifically remove the pathogenic factors related to immune system in the blood. It usually used in immune system diseases and liver diseases.

Immune Adsorption

What are the functions of immune adsorption?

- Removes the large-molecule toxins in the blood, such as immunoglobulin, immune complexes, albumin, endotoxin, cytokines and Inflammatory mediators.

- Remove the antibody from antiserum by use of specific antigen.

- Remove antigen by specific antiserum in a similar manner.

- It is the excessive antigens, antibodies or immune complexes that cause the endless damages to kidneys. Thereby, immune adsorption helps stop the development of kidney disease very soon.

What are the features of immune adsorption?

- It deals with the large size wastes in the blood

- It helps control the inflammatory factors generation and spread and slow down the development of medical condition.

- It is very useful in immune system disease, especially allergic immune kidney disease for it can remove the allergic toxins in the blood.

- It usually is used together with Plasma Exchange.

- Its indications include IgA Nephropathy, crescentic Glomerulonephritis, empsyxis caused by nephritis syndrome, lupus nephritis, cancer complicated with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, blood diseases, Purpura, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic allograft nephropathy.

Immune Adsorption

What types of immune adsorption are there?

There are two types of immune adsorption, including plasma immune adsorption (TR-350L,PH-350L,BR-350L) and DNA immune adsorption.

Dos and donts of immune adsorption

- increase protein intake decrease potassium, phosphate intake and limit fluids.

- avoid morphine codeine; reduce doses of SSRIs and avoid vitamin A supplements.

- Monitor potassium levels

- Control BP and lipid levels

- Keep immunizations up to date, particularly in patients who may be candidates for transplantation

- Assess patient for anxiety

- Testing for renal osteodystrophy and follow-up if results abnormal.

- Smoking and alcohol cessation

- Maintenance of healthy weight

- Regular excise

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here

Plasma Exchange

What is Plasma Exchange?

Plasma exchange, also known as Plasmapheresis, is done to exchange plasma in the blood. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood that does not contain cells. Once the plasma is removed, fresh plasma or a plasma substitute is added back to the blood. It is used to remove the Macromolecular Waste Substances in patient's blood.

Plasma Exchange

What are the functions of Plasma Exchange?

- Short term effects:

● Clearing of circulating harmful components (protein bound toxics, monoclonal gammaglobulins, circulating immune complexes);

● Vascular rheologic parameters improvement ( particularly aimed in vasculitis and microcirculation impairment );

- Mid term effects :

● Clearing properties of PE relieve the macrophagic sytem cells in dysimmune disease, hitherto increasing their ability to remove immunoglobulin and immune complexes,

● By removing antibodies PE could amplify their secreting cells sensitivity to immunosuppression drugs (some autoimmune diseases with auto-antibodies )

- Long term effects (poorly known) :

● Immuno-modulation

● Globally PE clear plasma protein or protein bound toxics and generate quick immunosuppression. They are of limited use in diseases where a rapid removal of high molecular weight toxics and immunosuppression is aimed (often associated to immunosuppressive drugs);

What are the side effects of Plasma Exchange?

- Bleeding may appear, if you use frequent plasma exchange.

- It doesn't focuses on the root cause of the disease, thereby, it cannot prevent the relapse, but it also doesn't affect your current treatment.

- The possible complications of Plasma Exchanges including Hematoma (on the injection site), inflammation, pneumothorax.

- It may lead to Extracorporeal circulation clotting.

- You may experience the following condition, that is, low blood pressure, bleeding, edema and the lost of some substances in the blood.

Plasma Exchange

What are the features of Plasma Exchange?

- It shows promising effects in treating the following kidney diseases: anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, Acute Glomerulonephritis, serious Focal Segmental Glomerulonephritis, Lupus Nephritis, crescent Glomerulonephritis, immune kidney disease, lipoprotein glomerulopathy,

- It deals with Rheumatism immunological diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatism immunological diseases, systemic sclerosis, antiphospholipid syndrome.

- It works in immune nervous system disease, including myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barrè syndrome, myasthenic syndrome, multiple sclerosis etc.

- It is useful in digestive system disease, including severe hepatitis, severe liver failure, hepatic encephalopathy, hyperbilirubinemia.

- It is used in blood disease, such as Huppert's disease, leukemia, lymphoma etc.

- It works in other disease, such as chronic Portability disease, drug overdose, autoimmune thyroid disease etc.

What are the Plasma Exchange facts?

- The utilization ratio of Plasma Exchange in various diseases is 26% (kidney disease), 15% (nervous system disease), 12% (rheumatism), 11% (blood disease), 8% (liver failure), 8% metabolic endocrine disease, paraproteinemia, 13% others (severe poisoning or myocardosis).

- It rarely causes complications. In a survey involved with 20,000 cases, the complications only appears in 4.3% of them.

Dos and don'ts of Plasma Exchanges

- avoid inflammation

- After session you shall stand up progressively, may have a meal and go back home but you may be tired during days of treatment.

- Wear comfortable clothing with sleeves that can easily be pulled above the elbows.

- Eat a well-balanced meal before going for treatment, unless instructed otherwise by your doctor.

- Review your regular medicines with your doctor. You may be asked to stop taking some drugs.

- Arrange to have someone drive you home from the hospital.

- Drink plenty of noncaffeinated and nonalchoholic beverages.

- Bring a book or personal music player to help pass the time during the procedure.

- Empty your bladder before the procedure.

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here

CRRT

What is CRRT?

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy is designed to provide artificial kidney support to patients who could not tolerate traditional hemodialysis. CRRT is intended to run for 24 hours a day, but the average therapy time is actually closer to 16 hours a day due to interruption. It deals with all sized waste molecules in the blood.

CRRT

What are the functions of CRRT?

- Reduce clotting in the hemofilter to maximize the CRRT circuit life.

- Replace the excretory function of the kidney.

- Deals with acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, fluid overload, drug overdose, life-threatening electrolyte imbalance, major burns with compromised renal function.

- Remove fluid in special circumstances—post surgery pulmonary edema, ARDS etc.

- Provide excellent control of azotemia, electrolytes and acid base balance.

- Remove proinflammtory medicators of inflammation, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a.

What are the side effects of CRRT?

You may have the following risks:

- Atheroembolism

- Hemorrhage

- Ischemia of the limb

- Hematoma formation

- Arterial wall injury

- Spasm of the artery cannulated

Besides, this mode of therapy asks regular monitoring of hemodynamic status and fluid balance; ongoing alarms and an expensive mode of therapy, regular infusion of dialysate.

What are the features of CRRT?

- No pump is required in this therapy. The mean arterial pressure drives the blood into the filter or dialyzer.

- It gives rapid and constant blood flow rate.

- It has the advantage of improved dialyzer performance and decreased line and dialyzer clotting.

What types of CRRT are there?

Continuous CRRT

- Slow Continuous Ultrafiltration (SCUF) removes fluid without the need for replacement fluids known as substitution solutions. It helps prevent or deal with fluid overload in cases when waste products don't need to be removed, or the PH levels don't need to be corrected.

Continuous CRRT

- Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration (CVVH) is a form of convective dialysis which removes large volumes of fluids and waste products from the patient. This mode is also very effective for clearing mid sized molecules, such as inflammatory cytokines.

- Continuous Venovenous Hemodialysis (CVHD) primarily uses diffusion along with a cleansing fluid known as a dialysate solution to boost the removal of waste products. This provides reasonably effective solute clearance, although mostly small molecules are removed.

Continuous CRRT

- Continuous Venous Venous Hemodiafiltration (CVVHD). With this therapy, both small and middle molecules are cleared, and both dialysate and replacement fluids are required.

What are the CRRT facts?

- In Australia, 90% of patients in an ICU (Intensive Care Unit) with acute renal failure receive CRRT, in Europe about 50% and numbers in America continue to rise.

Dos and don'ts of CRRT

- The patient should remain in the bed till the catheter in situ.

- Avoiding interruptions in CRRT by preventing clotting provides continuous therapy.

Anticoagulation may be or may be not necessary, which depends on doctor's preference, patient's condition and other factors.

    Find others who understand you here. Would you like to share something you learned through experience? Anyone can submit any story at anytime! Click Here