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End Stage Renal Disease(ESRD) refers to complete or almost complete loss of renal function. It is also known as stage 5 chronic kidney disease(CKD). It can involve multiple organs and tissues and lead to a myriad of complications.
Anemia is commonly seen in ESRD. It refers to a condition, in which the red blood cell count declines. As red blood cells distribute oxygen to tissues and cells throughout the body, insufficient oxygen supply can cause fatigue, pale face and dizziness. Usually, injection of EPO and iron supplement can relieve the disorder.
Heart disease is one of leading death cause for ESRD. It is mainly attributable to the following factors.
* High blood pressure can damage the arteries in heart.
* Anemia can cause less oxygen supply to kidneys and it also can make heart work harder.
* High levels of phosphate can contribute to calcification in heart and arteries.
The patients with bone disease usually present with ostealgia, fracture and deformation of bone. It is mainly attributable to elevated phosphorus levels and vitamin D metabolic disturbance. This is because the kidneys fail to remove phosphorus adequately and loss of calcium from bone.
Never damage in ESRD mainly includes uremic brain disease and peripheral neuritis. As the kidneys are damaged, dangerous levels of uremic toxins build up in blood, thus leading to damage to nerve.
Nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting and other digestive system symptoms can be present in ESRD. As the impaired kidneys fail to remove urea from body, it can be decomposed into ammonia to irritate gastrointestinal tract. That is how vomiting and nausea occur.
Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath is a big problem for people with ESRD. As a large amount of fluids build up in body, the patients' blood vessels and lung may be flooded with fluids, resulting in shortness of breath. The patients may not be able to lie on back at night. In some cases, the patients may have metallic taste and bad odor in their mouth.