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I. Blood test.
▪ BUN and Scr. For people with ESRD, BUN>21.42mmol/L, Scr>442μmol/L. In the late stage of ESRD, BUN>28.6mmol/L, Scr>707μmol/L.
▪ Test of haemoglobin. The normal level of haemoglobin in adults is 110g/L. In ESRD, this level generally is <80g/L; while decreases to 20-30g/L in the late stage accompanied with decreased platelet level and elevated WBC level.
▪ Exams gas and acid-base of artery blood. In the stage of ESRD, especially of mid-to-late stage, the PH value will decrease, so will the levels of SB, AB, and BE. PaCO2 shows compensatory increase.
▪ Electrolytes test. Various electrolytes level including serum potassium, serum sodium, serum calcium, etc will become abnormal.
▪ Check-up of plasma protein. This level can be normal or decreased. In general, the plasma protein level of adults is about 60-80g/L.
▪ Urine routine test. The result may very with different primary causes of ESRD. Patients may present protein and blood in the urine. There is possibly no obvious changes.
▪ Tests of urine volume and urine specific gravity.
Patients with oliguria have less than 400ml urine output in 24 hour. Urine molal osmotic concentration is about 280～300ml equivalent/kg. Urine sodium is often more than 40ml equivalent/l.
In the stage of ESRD, the urine specific gravity will decrease or is within fixed range (1.010-1.012). The urine output at night is more than that at daytime. Since there are many factors that can affect the SP, the result is not so accurate. It can be regarded as a reference other than a conclusive statistic for ESRD diagnosis.
For more information, continue read "Routine Exams and Tests for End Stage Renal Disease (II)".