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Functions Of Kidneys And How Does Urine Come From


Provided by Expert Zhang Youkang on 2018-08-27 15:44

Functions Of Kidneys,UrineKidney is one of the most important organs to maintain relatively stable internal environment.

What are the functions of the kidneys?

1. Through the formation and discharge of urine, most of the metabolic end products and foreign bodies entering the body can be discharged.

2. Intracellular and extracellular fluid volume and osmotic pressure can be regulated.

3. Important electrolytes in body fluid such as sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and chloride ions can be retained, hydrogen ions can be discharged, and the acid-base balance in the body can be maintained.

How does urine come from?

Urine is produced by the kidneys and excreted through the ureter, bladder and urethra. Urine production takes about three steps to complete.

The most important function of kidney is to form urine. First of all, we should know the structure of the glomerulus. After entering the kidney parenchyma, the artery at the hilum gradually divides into many small arteries, and then connects with the glomerulus. We can see the glomerulus under a microscope. It is composed of many very thin blood vessels, namely capillaries. Then we can see these capillaries under an electron microscope. There are many holes in it. It's like a sieve. When blood flows through the renal artery and enters the glomerulus, large components, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and proteins, remain in the blood vessels and return to the body because they cannot pass through these sieve holes, and small components, such as water, sodium, chlorine, urea and sugar, are filtered out through these sieve holes. Flowing into the renal tubule, the filtered fluid is called the original urine.

Urine contains many nutrients, such as sugar, amino acids, etc. When it flows through the renal tubules, these nutrients are completely re-absorbed into the body, water 99% is also absorbed, at this time only the body's metabolic waste and little water, they form urine. Urine enters the pelvis and then flows through the ureter into the bladder. When it is retained for a certain amount, it is expelled from the body. There are about 1.3 million glomeruli in each kidney. It filters out about 180 litres of urine a day, forming about 1.8 litres of urine containing metabolic waste.

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