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What Are the Complications of Horseshoe Kidney

Provided by Expert Zhang Youkang on 2012-09-23 09:38

What Are the Complications of Horseshoe KidneyHorseshoe kidney is a congenital condition in which the kidneys are fused together at the lower end or base. If left uncontrolled, it may cause the following complications.

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection usually begins to occur by age 5 and it is more common in girls than boys. It is very likely to cause kidney infection to cause renal function deterioration.

Kidney stones

Kidney stone are common complications of horseshoe kidney. If the stones remain in the kidney, the patients usually do not experience symptoms. However, if the stones pass through urinary tract, the patients may experience the following symptoms:

Nausea and/or vomiting



Cloudy urine

Increased urination


Blood in urine

Cloudy urine


Hydronephrosis is due to urinary tract obstruction. If it occurs, the patients may experience the following manifestations.

Abdominal mass


Oliguria or anuria

High blood pressure

Urinary tract infection

Spontaneous renal rupture

Digestive tract symptom

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) refers to multiple fluid-filled cysts growing in both kidneys. This condition has been found in 20% cases of horseshoe kidney. Approximately 50% of people with PKD end with renal failure by age 60.

Wilm’s tumor

It is an embryonic tumor of the kidneys that usually occurs during early childhood. Also some other kinds of renal cancer may occur.

Additionally, hydrocephaly and spina bifida can be seen in complications of horseshoe kidney.

The above is a brief introduction of complications of horseshoe kidney. If they can be controlled well, the kidney damage will be reduced significantly.

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