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Kidney failure consists of acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure, which is a medicine condition that the kidneys lose some or whole ability to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes. Here are top 10 common tests for kidney failure diagnosis.
Urinalysis. Analysis of the urine affords enormous insight into the function of the kidneys. Firstly, a dipstick test is performed which is used to check the urine for the presence of various normal and abnormal constituents, including protein.
24-hour urine test. This test requires the patient to collect all of their urine for 24 consecutive hours. The urine may be analyzed for protein and waste products (urea nitrogen, and creatinine).
Ultrasound. An ultrasound is a noninvasive type of imaging test. In general, kidneys are shrunken in size in chronic kidney disease, although they may be normal or even large in size in cases caused by adult polycystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and amyloidosis.
GFR. An estimation of the GFR (eGFR) can be calculated from the patient's routine blood tests. Patients are divided into five stages of chronic kidney disease based on their GFR (see Table 1 above).
Blood cell counts. Because kidney disease disrupts blood cell production and shortens the survival of red cells, the red blood cell count and hemoglobin may be low (anemia).
BUN (blood urea nitrogen). Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine are the most commonly used blood tests to screen for and monitor renal disease.
Biopsy. Usually, a biopsy can be collected with local anesthesia by introducing a needle through the skin into the kidney. This is usually done as an outpatient procedure, though some institutions may require an overnight hospital stay.
eGFR. It is important to be aware of one's estimated GFR and stage of chronic kidney disease. The physician uses the patient's stage of kidney disease to recommend additional testing and provide suggestions on management.
Electrolyte levels and acid-base balance. Kidney dysfunction causes imbalances in electrolytes, especially potassium, phosphorus, and calcium.
Some patients may also have iron deficiency due to blood loss in their gastrointestinal system. Other nutritional deficiencies may also impair the production of red cells.
The common tests may just make a final diagnosis of Kidney Failure, however, if you need an accurate information of your individual condition and plan for treatment, you need more special tests for Kidney Failure.
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